How do massive stars that emit ultraviolet radiation that can limit the growth of planets end upwardly with planets the size of Jupiter? They steal them, say astronomers from the University of Sheffield. In a September 7, 2022 statement, researchers suggested that massive stars more than three times the size of our Lord’s day are ripping planets out of their stellar nurseries in what they telephone call
The researchers published their findings in a peer-reviewed journal.
Purple Astronomical Society Monthly Notices
May 23, 2022 Article also available on arXiv.
Massive stars tin can steal BEASTies
On the positive side, maybe planets can form effectually massive stars. However, the powerful radiation emanating from them is a limiting factor for the growth of their planets. However, astronomers accept found massive stars with Jupiter-sized planets.
With that in mind, astronomers at the University of Sheffield explained that the planets may have originally belonged to less massive stars in a stellar nursery or young star cluster. Merely massive stars tore the planets abroad from their original parent star. Astronomers phone call these planets they establish BEASTies for the B-Star Exoplanet Abundance Written report (BEAST).
These BEASTies orbit at a great distance from their electric current parent star. The altitude betwixt a star and BEASTie can be hundreds of times greater than the distance betwixt the Earth and the Sun. Co-author Emma Duffern-Powell of the University of Sheffield said:
Our previous research has shown that in stellar nurseries, stars can steal planets from other stars or take over what we call “free-floating” planets. Nosotros know that massive stars have a greater influence on these nurseries than lord’s day-like stars. And we’ve found that these massive stars tin can have over or steal planets, which nosotros phone call “BEASTies.”
In fact, this is a planetary heist. Nosotros used computer simulations to show that the theft or capture of these BEASTies occurs on average one time in the first x meg years of the star formation region’south evolution.
Painting a moving-picture show of a planetary robbery
Co-author Richard Parker of the University of Sheffield said:
The BEAST planets are a new add-on to a plethora of exoplanetary systems showing incredible variety, from planetary systems effectually sunday-similar stars that are very different from our solar system, to planets orbiting evolved or dead stars.
The BEAST collaboration has discovered at least ii super-Jupiterian planets orbiting massive stars. While planets can class around massive stars, it’s hard to imagine gas behemothic planets similar Jupiter and Saturn being able to form in such a hostile environment, where stellar radiation could vaporize the planets before they’re fully formed.
Nevertheless, our simulations evidence that these planets tin be captured or stolen in orbits very similar to those observed by the BEASTies. Our results further support the idea that planets in more distant orbits (more than 100 times the distance from Earth to the Sun) may not circumduct around their parent star.
Bottom line: Massive stars emit powerful radiation that limits the growth of planets around them. But a new study shows they can steal Jupiter-sized planets from stellar nurseries.
Source: The Great Planetary Heist: Heist and Takeover in Star Forming Regions.
Via Sheffield University